Welcome to our first post from Clusters Coffee! I know some of you might be coffee experts and some of you have just started to be passionate on specialty coffee. We would like to start off our first post on the basics of coffee.
After roasting the coffee beans (endosperm) inside of coffee cherries from coffee trees, they become the brown-in-color coffee beans that we all know and use to.
Coffee trees belong to coffea genus in the rubiaceae family, there are around 70 species of coffee trees under coffea genus.
Arabica and Canephora are widely used in the commercial market. People are less familiar with Canephora, since it is usually called as Robusta. In fact, Robusta is only a branch of Canephora, but as Robusta is universally known, it has become the synonym of Canephora.
Arabica currently owns 65% of the coffee production values. Its great cultivars (cultivated varieties) receive widespread acclaims of their favours, such as Typica and Bourbon. However, the coffee disease and insect resistance of Arabica is relatively low.
Canephora currently owns 35% of the coffee production values. The taste of coffee is uniquely strong, bitter, with malt-like aroma. The coffee disease and insect resistance of Canephora is high. In 1900, when Arabica coffee trees were attacked by serious disease, Canephora started to become popular.
Other than the above, there are other species in Asia and West Africa such as Libarica, which account for only 1% to 2% of the current coffee production values.
How about the other species of coffee trees? Do they have no commercial use at all? For this, we are unable to give an affirmative answer at this stage. In recent years, due to the rapid development of various biotechnologies, it is believed that in the near future, other species of coffee trees would have established as outstanding influences to the commercial market.
You can read [Part 2] - What is the botany of coffee now!